BRCA-associated protein 1 mutant cholangiocarcinoma: an aggressive disease subtype

Al-Shamsi HO, Anand D, Shroff RT, Jain A, Zuo M, Conrad C, Vauthey JN, Javle MM.
J Gastrointest Oncol. 2016 Aug;7(4):556-61. doi: 10.21037/jgo.2016.03.05.

Abstract

Background: BRCA-associated protein 1, an enzyme encoded by the BAP1 gene, is commonly mutated in uveal melanoma, mesothelioma, and renal cancers. Tumors with BAP1 mutation follow an aggressive course. BAP1 mutations have also been observed in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The clinical phenotype of BAP1 mutant CCA may yield useful prognostic and therapeutic information but has not been defined.

Methods: The records of CCA patients who underwent next-generation sequencing (NGS) were reviewed, and data on clinical, histopathological, genetic, and radiological features; response to therapy; time to progression; and survival were analyzed.

Results: Twenty-two cases of BAP1-mutation associated CCA were diagnosed from January 1, 2009, to February 1, 2015, at our center. Twenty patients had intrahepatic CCA and two had extrahepatic CCA. Tumor sizes (largest dimension) ranged from 2 to 16 cm (mean, 8.5 cm). Twelve patients had tumors that were poorly differentiated. Majority of the patients had advanced disease at presentation and 13 had bone metastases. Thirteen patients (59%) experienced rapidly progressive disease following primary therapy (chemotherapy or surgical resection). The mean time to tumor progression was 3.8 months after the first line chemotherapy.

Conclusions: BAP1 mutation in CCA may be associated with aggressive disease and poor response to standard therapies. Therefore, BAP1-targeted therapies need to be investigated.

Keywords: BAP1-mutant cholangiocarcinoma; next-generation sequencing (NGS); Foundation Medicine;
gemcitabine; cisplatin

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